Nickel steel clad plate¬†is a composite material made of nickel and steel through a certain process. It combines the advantages of nickel and steel and has high strength, good corrosion resistance and high temperature performance. It is widely used in manufacturing high-end equipment in petrochemical, energy, nuclear industry and other fields, such as pressure vessels, pipelines, reactors, etc.
1. Nickel steel clad¬†plate
Manufacturing process of nickel steel clad plate
The manufacturing processes of nickel steel clad plates mainly include explosion welding, hot rolling and explosion rolling. The explosion welding process places two metal surfaces, nickel and steel, together and tightly bonds them through explosion shock waves. This process has the characteristics of high bonding strength, smooth interface, and no holes. It is one of the main processes for manufacturing nickel steel clad plates. Hot rolling and explosion rolling processes press two metals together through high temperature or explosion pressure, which have the advantages of high production efficiency and low cost.
Performance characteristics of nickel steel clad plate
High strength:¬†Nickel steel clad plates have high tensile strength and yield point and can withstand greater pressure and load-bearing capacity.
Good corrosion resistance: The nickel element in nickel steel clad plates has good corrosion resistance and can resist the erosion of various chemical substances, such as acids, alkalis, salts, etc.
High¬†temperature performance:¬†Nickel steel composite plate has good high-temperature performance, can maintain high strength and stability at high temperatures, and is suitable for work in high-temperature environments.
High interface bonding strength:¬†The nickel steel composite plate has high interface bonding strength, which can ensure stability when withstanding pressure and load-bearing capacity.
Good processing performance:¬†Nickel steel clad plates can be easily processed, such as cutting, welding, and curling, and have good processing performance.
Application fields of nickel steel clad plate
Petrochemical industry: Nickel steel composite plates have good corrosion resistance and high temperature performance and can be used to manufacture petrochemical equipment, such as reactors, towers, heat exchangers, etc.
Energy field:¬†Nickel steel clad plates can be used to manufacture key equipment such as reactor pressure shells and steam generators of nuclear power plants and equipment in other energy fields.
Aerospace:¬†Nickel steel composite plates can be used to manufacture key components such as engine parts and rocket combustion chambers in the aerospace field.
Other fields:¬†Nickel steel composite plates can also be used in shipbuilding, automobiles, electronics and other fields, such as manufacturing corrosion-resistant pipes for ships, bulletproof steel plates for automobiles, etc.
2. Other nickel steel
Low-temperature nickel steel
Low-temperature nickel steel can be used for storage tanks and pipelines that store, process and transport liquid ethylene, methane, liquefied natural gas, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and other liquefied gases. There are two other low-temperature nickel steels, 12%Ni steel and 13%Ni steel, which can be used in low-temperature conditions of 4 to 77K.
Fe-Ni alloy containing carbon (<0.13%), a small amount of manganese (<1.5%), and some containing a small amount of molybdenum and chromium.
Low temperature nickel steel suitable for use below 203K% Ni is: 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5, 5.5, 8, 9% Ni nickel steel. The minimum operating temperatures of 3.5% Ni and 9 steel are 173K and 77K respectively. These two steels are widely used.
Low-temperature nickel steel can be used for storage tanks and pipelines that store, process and transport liquid ethylene, methane, liquefied natural gas, liquid oxygen, liquid nitrogen and other liquefied gases. There are two other low-temperature nickel steels, 12%Ni steel and 13%Ni steel, which can be used in low-temperature conditions of 4 to 77K. Both steels are completely ferritic.
High nickel steel
High-nickel steel contains higher nickel than ordinary stainless steel and is an excellent material that is very heat-resistant and corrosion-resistant. It is a platinum-based five-element alloy containing tungsten, rhenium, nickel and chromium. Rhenium can increase strength and reduce the temperature coefficient of resistance, while nickel and chromium can improve the oxidation resistance of the alloy. The resistance coefficient of PtWReNiCr8-4-2-0.5 alloy is 80.3√ó10-2ő©¬∑mm2/m, the temperature coefficient of resistance is 142√ó10-6/‚ĄÉ, and the strain sensitivity coefficient is 3.2. Use high-frequency furnace argon gas to protect the melting, hot forging after homogenization, and cold processing into materials. Used as high-temperature strain grid material. At 800‚ĄÉ, the zero point drift is very small, and the change with time is also very small.
Determination of nickel
Dissolve the sample with aqua regia, use ammonia as the precipitant, and add an appropriate amount of triethanolamine and citric acid for masking to eliminate the interference of elements such as iron and chromium. In the acidic medium with pH=3-6, add an excess of EDTA standard solution so that nickel and EDA form a stable complex. Using PAN as an indicator, titrate the excess EDTA standard solution with copper sulfate standard solution to obtain the nickel content.
Controlling inclusion mining and inclusion composition in iron-nickel alloys was studied through slag deoxidation. Discussing the effect of Ni content on Si or Al deoxidation equilibrium, most inclusions are considered to be secondary inclusions during the cooling or solidification process. The accuracy of using thermodynamic data to predict inclusion composition is good and has been shown to be useful in predicting inclusion composition. The inclusion morphology of high-nickel steel in steelmaking controls the deoxidation of slag in steelmaking.
Strong corrosion resistance
It has superb corrosion resistance against lowering acids like sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid. Additionally, it has low carbon residential or commercial properties and rust resistance for welding applications. Because the carbon content is extremely reduced (optimal 0.020%), there will be no carbide rainfall during general heat treatment and welding. This removes the intergranular corrosion threat that normally occurs after warm therapy and welding. It can be passivated even in minimizing settings like sulfuric acid and formic acid. The high nickel content additionally causes a lower deterioration price in the active state. In pure sulfuric acid in the concentration variety of 0 to 98%, the service temperature level of high-nickel steel can be as high as 40 ¬į C. Its corrosion resistance is very good in pure phosphoric acid with a concentration range of 0~85%.
In industrial phosphoric acid produced by wet processes, impurities strongly impact corrosion resistance. High-nickel steel resists corrosion better than ordinary steel among all types of phosphoric acid. In highly oxidizing nitric acid, the corrosion resistance is lower compared to highly alloyed steels that do not contain molybdenum. In hydrochloric acid, the use of high-nickel steel is limited to lower concentrations of 1-2% within this concentration range. High-nickel steel has better corrosion resistance than conventional stainless steel.
Its ability to resist crevice corrosion in chloride solutions is also very good. The high nickel content of high-nickel steel reduces the corrosion rate in pits and crevices. Normal austenitic stainless steel might be sensitive to stress rust in a chloride-rich atmosphere at temperatures above 60 ¬į C. This level of sensitivity can be minimized by boosting the nickel material.
High-nickel steel is often used in fish grills, ovens, small water heaters, dishwashers, drum-type washing machines, canned beverage vending machines, cup beverage vending machines, thermal storage heaters, barbecue machines, electric grill pans, etc.
3.¬†What are the functions of nickel (Ni) in steel?
The influence of nickel on the microstructure and heat treatment of steel
1) Nickel and iron can form infinite solid solutions. Nickel expands the austenite zone of iron and is the main alloy element that forms and stabilizes austenite.
2) Nickel and carbon do not form carbides.
3) Reduce the critical transformation temperature, reduce the diffusion rate of various elements in steel, and improve hardenability.
4) Reduce the carbon content of eutectoid pearlite. Its effect is second only to nitrogen but stronger than manganese. It is about half as effective as manganese in reducing the martensitic transformation temperature.
The influence of nickel on the mechanical properties of steel
1) Strengthen ferrite and refine and increase pearlite to improve the strength of steel and have little impact on the plasticity of steel. Common nickel-containing steel products are shown in the figure.
(Nickel-containing steel product)
2) The carbon content of nickel-containing steel can be appropriately reduced, thus improving the toughness and plasticity.
3) Improve steel’s fatigue properties and reduce steel’s sensitivity to notches.
4) Since it is not very effective in improving steel’s hardenability and tempering stability, nickel is of little significance to quenched and tempered steel.
The influence of nickel on the physical, chemical and process properties of steel
1) Greatly reduce the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of steel.
2)¬†Steel with a mass fraction of nickel less than 30% is paramagnetic (i.e., non-magnetic steel), and iron-nickel alloys with a mass fraction of nickel greater than 30% are important precision soft magnetic materials.
(Soft magnetic strip)
3) Steel with a nickel mass fraction of 15%-20% or higher has high corrosion resistance to sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid but is not resistant to nitric acid corrosion. In summary, nickel-containing steel has certain corrosion resistance to acids, alkalis and the atmosphere.
4) Austenitic electrodes should be used when welding steel with high nickel content to prevent the occurrence of cracks.
5) Banded structure and white spot defects are prone to occur in nickel-containing steel, which should be prevented during production.
Application of nickel in steel
1) Pure nickel steel is only used when exceptionally high impact toughness or very low working temperature requirements exist.
2) Nickel-chromium or nickel-chromium-molybdenum steel used in machinery manufacturing can obtain comprehensive mechanical properties with good strength and toughness after heat treatment. Nickel-containing steel is particularly suitable for parts that require surface carburization, as shown in the figure.
(Surface carburized parts)
- Nickel is an austenitizing element in high-alloy austenitic stainless heat-resistant steel, which can provide good comprehensive properties. It is mainly NiCr series steel.
(304 stainless steel rod)
- Since nickel is relatively scarce and is an important strategic material, it will be used only when it is impossible to meet the performance requirements of other alloying elements. In general, nickel should be used as little or as little as possible as an alloying element in steel.
TRUNNANO¬†is a supplier¬†of¬†nickel steel materials¬†with¬†over 12 years experience in nano-building energy conservation and nanotechnology development. It accepts payment via Credit Card, T/T, West Union and Paypal. Trunnano will ship the goods to customers overseas through FedEx, DHL, by air, or by sea. If you are looking for high-quality nickel steel materials¬†please feel free to contact us and send an inquiry.