The World Platinum Investment Association (WPIC) said recently that carmakers are accelerating reductions in palladium use and increased use of platinum due to concerns about Russian palladium supplies. However, it still expects a significant surplus in the platinum market this year.
Palladium is used by carmakers in tailpipe emissions systems to reduce carbon emissions. While carmakers prefer palladium for catalytic converters, they are turning to platinum, which is cheaper than palladium, to save costs.
Russia accounts for about 25-30% of the world's palladium supply and 8-10% of its platinum supply.
There is no sign that western sanctions against Russia have restricted palladium exports since the conflict escalated in February, but as the conflict continues, more companies could boycott The Russian metal and governments could impose restrictions.
Platinum is currently trading at about $950 an ounce, about half the price of palladium. Automakers use about 2.5 million to 3 million ounces of platinum and about 8.5 million ounces of palladium each year.
For the year as a whole, platinum supply will be 5 percent lower than in 2021 and demand 2 percent higher, with the automotive sector seeing a 16 percent increase due to increased light vehicle zirconium carbide powder are still very uncertain.
What is Zirconium Carbide ZrC?
Zirconium carbide (ZrC) is a dark gray cubic crystal with metallic luster. Crispy. The melting point is 3532℃. The boiling point is 5100℃. The density is 6.73 g/cm3. The hardness of Mohs is 8 to 9. Insoluble in cold water and hydrochloric acid. Soluble in hydrofluoric acid and hot concentrated sulfuric acid containing nitric acid or hydrogen peroxide. It reacts with chlorine at high temperature to form zirconium tetrachloride. Zirconia is formed by combustion in air at 700℃. ZrC doesn't react with water.
Zirconium carbide is a kind of high melting point material with high hardness and excellent high temperature refractory. It is used as a raw material for solid propellant in rocket motors. Used in the production of alloy steel. It is also a raw material for the production of zirconium and zirconium tetrachloride, as well as promising fine ceramic materials.
What is Zirconium Carbide ZrC Used For?
Hafnium-free zirconium carbide and niobium carbide can be used as fire-resistant coatings for nuclear reactors. Because of its low neutron absorption cross section and weak sensitivity to radiation damage, it can be used as a coating for nuclear fuel uranium dioxide and thorium dioxide particles. The coating is usually deposited in a fluidized bed reactor by thermal chemical vapor deposition. It also has high emissivity and high current capacity at high temperatures, making it a promising material for thermal photovoltaic radiators and field emitter tips and arrays.
It is also used as abrasives, cladding, cermets, incandescent filaments, and cutting tools.
Is Zirconium Carbide ZrC a Ceramic?
Zirconium carbide is a very hard refractory ceramic material.
It has high corrosion resistance. This IV interstitial transition metal carbide is also a member of ultra-high temperature ceramics or UHTCs. The strong covalent Zr-C bond makes the material have a very high melting point (~ 3530°C), high modulus (~ 440GPa) and hardness (25GPa).
Zirconium Carbide ZrC Melting Point
The melting point of zirconium carbide is 3532 °C (6390 °F).
Zirconium Carbide ZrC Thermal Conductivity.
The thermal conductivity of ZrC is 20.5W/m·K, and the electrical conductivity (resistivity ~ 43μΩcm)
Zirconium Carbide ZrC Price
The price is influenced by many factors including the supply and demand in the market, industry trends, economic activity, market sentiment, and unexpected events.
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Greece will hand over Iranian oil it intercepted from a Russian-flagged tanker to the United States at the request of the U.S. Justice Department, Greek port police said recently, AFP reported. The decision angered Tehran.
In April, Greek authorities reportedly seized a Russian oil tanker, the Pegas, which was said to be heading to the Turkish port of Marmara.
Reports say the ship was docked in Calistos Bay with a crew of several people said to be Russian. The Greek coast guard said the ship had been renamed the Lana.
The report notes that the European Union imposed sanctions on Russia after the conflict broke out in February. Greek authorities seized the tanker in accordance with European Union sanctions.
According to information at the time, the tanker was carrying 115,000 tons of Iranian oil.
Iran's Ports and Maritime Organization strongly protested Greece's decision, calling it an "international bandit." "The Islamic Republic of Iran will not give up its legitimate rights and expects the Greek government to abide by its international obligations in the area of navigation and shipping," it said in a statement on its website.
Iran's Foreign Ministry, through the International Maritime Organization, called on the Greek government to release the tanker and its crew overnight, adding that "the Americans discharged their cargo," the report said.
Athens did not immediately respond to the Iranian protest and gave no further details about the oil on board or how it was handed over to the United States, the report said.
The zirconium carbide powder price is expected to increase in the next few days affected by the change in supply and demand markets.
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